These kinds of issues are well known to nudgers. There is not a bright line distinguishing a mandate from a nudge; the question becomes one of costs. In the case of a default option, the question is how costly is it to opt out. As we have often said, the ideal nudge has “ one click ” as the cost of opting out. And the button to press for that click should be easy to find. Mandates are also not all equally offensive. In Romneycare, for example, there was a fine for not having health insurance, but the fine was pretty small — around a couple hundred dollars — at least initially.