Four types of writing

On a mission to transform learning through computational thinking, Shodor is dedicated to the reform and improvement of mathematics and science education through student enrichment, faculty enhancement, and interactive curriculum development at all levels. Student development of numerical models and simulations integrated with core curriculum provides an opportunity to gain practical experience in computational science. Additionally, the National Computational Science Institute (NCSI) provides nation-wide workshops portraying resources and instructional ideas to middle school, high school, and undergraduate instructors for use in the classroom. Resources and materials offered to these instructors are available free of charge from Shodor's website and are largely developed by Shodor student interns. Shodor's academic program efficiently guides participants from excitement to experience to expertise through computational explorations, research opportunities, and service.

Mina P. Shaughnessy (pronounced MY-NA SHAWN-ES-EE), involved with the SEEK program at CUNY, was a proponent of open admissions for City College (part of the CUNY system) and became director of the BW program once City College opened its doors to all. Shaughnessy worked hard not only to design a curriculum for students that seemed alien to the professors that literally did not know what to do with students who seemed not to be able to put two words together, in some cases, but to understand and categorize the characteristics of basic writers in order to understand them better, and be able to teach them more effectively. For this purpose, Shaughnessy compiled four-thousand placement essays written by students as part of the entrance process into City College and classified the seeming errors that she found, trying to understand the logic behind spelling, syntax, grammar, etc., that seemed, at best, scattered and, at worst, completely arbitrary. She published her results in the book Errors and Expectations (1977). Her main conclusion is that these writers are not scattered or arbitrary, but that they have created systems of written English based on misunderstood rules, half-understood lessons on punctuation, their own local or familial dialects, among others, and have logically created their own systems of written English. It is not that these students do not understand communication, but they simply have not been taught or have misunderstood the rules of written formal English that are generally accepted. Shaughnessy’s work was considered groundbreaking and Errors and Expectations is still considered the seminal book in the field of BW. And although she died in 1978, and other scholars have made contributions to the field, Shaughnessy remains its leading figure today.

The physical activities may include the way that you move your body, the tone that is displayed when it comes to the tone of an individual's voice, and touching. In the workplace, it is not appropriate to touch another individual, but it is possible to ensure that the voice tone and the stance of the body is held appropriately so that the ideas, information, and thoughts are successfully shared with the intended audience. If you incorporate the four types of communication into your business, you will quickly see positive results. These include lower employee turnover, increased productivity, and a financial success.

Statistical evidence is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to prove a point.  That’s not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is in today’s society.   Remember those McDonald’s signs that said “Over 1 billion served”? How about those Trident chewing gum commercials that say “4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum”? Every time you use numbers to support a main point, you’re relying on statistical evidence to carry your argument. 

Four types of writing

four types of writing

Statistical evidence is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to prove a point.  That’s not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is in today’s society.   Remember those McDonald’s signs that said “Over 1 billion served”? How about those Trident chewing gum commercials that say “4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum”? Every time you use numbers to support a main point, you’re relying on statistical evidence to carry your argument. 

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