French philosophy has played an outstanding role in the development of a philosophy of film. Henri Bergson was the first philosopher who adopted film as a conceptual model for philosophical thought. Cinema helped him to imagine the distinction between spatialized time and duration, an idea that would remain essential for his entire philosophy. Though Bergson’s ideas bear no relation with the more contemporary language-based models of reason (and his interpreter Gilles Deleuze never used them in that way), Bergson’s thought fused with the remaining field of French philosophy of cinema in an often paradoxical fashion. Though French philosophy of film is composed of diverse elements, French or even continental philosophy of film can appear as amazingly coherent. Deleuze’s Bergsonian concept of the “time-image,” for example, is very much compatible with ideas elaborated by the Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky who derived his insights not from Bergson, but from a critical evaluation of Russian formalist film theory.
Lease restrictions work best in hot real estate markets because they prevent too many investors in HOA communities that want to remain mostly owner-occupied. But in a bad market, these restrictions can harm owners and the neighborhood. When owners can’t sell quickly and can’t have a tenant, the financial and emotional strain of an unwanted property leads to short sales, foreclosures, and abandoned real estate. All of these outcomes drive down property values, the very thing rental restrictions are meant to preserve! In these circumstances, HOA Boards would be wise to liberally grant hardship exceptions to the rental ban.