Employee participation, conversely, emerges from a collective employee interest to optimize the physical, security and inspirational conditions under which employees a re-contracted to serve . These ambitions are likely to be supported and promoted by political ideas, systems and parties, sensitive to the potential deprivations which accompany unregulated market operations, but resisted by employers whose freedom of action may be curtailed by protective participation procedure. An example of employer prejudice to employee participation proposals is well demonstrated by the UK experience. Tensions between the contrasting interests of employers and labor became evident in the UK, during the late 1970s: during this period, political expediency to mobilize union support was articulated by a strong union impetus toward participative arrangement, which were capable of propelling employee interests beyond the areas bounded by collective bargaining alone. Together, these movements manifested in proposals for worker and representative councils. The most inspiring of these initiatives was without any doubt the attempt to introduce a participative framework based on worker directors using the theory of unitary board, composed of equal numbers of shareholder and union workers supplemented by a minority of Neutral Director.
Only a small number of . businesses have implemented the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence to improve their performance. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies that executive business leaders use to implement the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence. The study population consisted of 6 business executives and 2 organizations in the . state of Texas, all with experience in implementing the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence. The theory of high performance work systems provided the conceptual framework for the study. Data were gathered from interviews and record reviews that were conducted within the organizations. Inductive analysis was used to identify words, phrases, ideas, and actions that were consistent among participants and organizations as well as to identify patterns and themes. Triangulation of sources between the interview and record review data was used for consistency. Three main themes emerged from data analysis: organizational leaders embedded the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence into native work models; they also used robust strategy deployment systems with accountability for action plans to spread the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence; and, rather than specifically create goals to align with the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence, they identified actions to reach organizational strategic goals that were created using the Criteria as a business model. Implications for positive social change arising from this study include the potential to increase the number of available jobs by improving overall organizational performance through the increased implementation and use of the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence among . organizations.