A ‘critical metal’ is one that has important economic uses, but which also faces supply risks for geopolitical or environmental and sustainability reasons. The constrained nature of critical metals supply means proposed solutions to the problem commonly involve reducing demand and therefore reliance, via recycling, substitution and thrifting. However, most critical metals are presently only small markets and therefore such an approach ignores the potential of transformational market growth to reduce supply risk, by creating large, diverse, transparent markets with multiple sources of primary mine supply, akin to modern base metals markets. Research is therefore required into which critical metals have the greatest potential for such transformational market growth. This study therefore conducts an evaluation of 49 critical metals to determine which are nearest to the combined breakthroughs in discovery, supply and demand that may lead to transformational market growth. The study concludes that 13 markets from the 49 critical metals, being magnesium, silicon, barium, boron, lithium, cobalt, chromium, vanadium, gallium, strontium, cerium, lanthanum and scandium have the highest potential for transformational market growth and thus efforts to resolve supply risk in these markets may be better focussed on overcoming current market constraints and growing these markets, rather than lessening reliance by reducing demand. ( http:///doi/full// )
You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, ., " ....poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) ." When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method.
The data are organized into "Canonical Pathways," idealized or generalized pathways that represent common properties of a particular signaling module or pathway, and "Specific Pathways," instances in which components are known to act together in a particular organism, tissue, or cell type. Pathway Authorities entered canonical and specific components into the Database and then incorporated these components into pathways. Each component has a minimum set of information that is independent of any pathway in which it appears. This is the "pathway-independent" component information and is found in the “components” XML file. Once components are placed in a pathway, they acquire additional "pathway-dependent" component information, which is part of the information found in the “pathways” XML files. Each pathway has a unique identifier and its own XML file. Only specific components can participate in specific pathways and only canonical components can participate in canonical pathways. Each specific component has a canonical component "parent". Various elements in the data are derived from controlled vocabularies and are each item in a controlled vocabulary has a unique identifier that is used in the component XML and pathway XML files. The information about the controlled vocabularies is in the “vocabularies” XML file. The “users” XML file is a list of the contributors and editors and developers who have updated data in the Database and these are referenced in the components and pathways XML files.